Examples of perceptual tasks. (A) Real world example of an aerial image. Analysts from the National Photographic Interpretation Center determined that there were medium-range ballistic missiles in this reconnaissance photo that set off the Cuban missile crisis. Image courtesy of National Museum of the US Air Force. (B) Real world example of medical images. Radiologists would have to determine if there are cancerous lesions in these mammograms. Reprinted with permission from ref. 55; https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). (C) Schematic of our single-location task. Each observer responded on an eight-point confidence scale whether there was a Gabor luminance patch (SNR = 3.5) in the middle of the black box. (D) Schematic of our search task. Each observer responded on an eight- point confidence scale whether there was a Gabor luminance patch (SNR = 7.88) anywhere in the image.